CDC. Recent trends in adolescent smoking, correlates and expectations for the future. Preliminary vital and health statistics data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / National Center for Health Statistics; No. 221, 2 December 1992. The nicotine found in tobacco is highly addictive and smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, more than 20 different cancers or subtypes, and many other debilitating health problems. Every year, more than 8 million people die as a result of tobacco use. Most tobacco-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, which are often the target of intense tobacco industry interference and marketing. The USPSTF identified 9 RCTs (n=3942) that reported harms of smoking cessation interventions in non-pregnant adults13 (the 5 studies described above reported cessation rates at 6 months or older, and 4 other studies reporting cessation rates at less than 6 months). No studies have been identified on the harms of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in pregnant women. The most commonly reported side effects of e-cigarette use reported in studies include cough, nausea, throat irritation, and sleep disturbance.13 In general, no significant differences in serious short-term adverse events associated with e-cigarette use were reported.13 Data on potential long-term harms of e-cigarette use make currently defaulting.
The USPSTF identified 5 RCTs (n=3117) on smoking cessation of e-cigarettes in non-pregnant adults13,75-80 and no studies in pregnant women.13 All 5 studies were conducted outside the USA (2 in New Zealand, 1 in Italy, 1 in Korea, and 1 in the United Kingdom). Four of the studies included participants who wanted to quit smoking or attend a smoking cessation service. The type of e-cigarette interventions (nicotine content, whether NRT was also administered, nicotine cartridge versus e-liquid, and whether behavioural support was also provided) and control interventions (NRT vs. nicotine-free e-cigarette) varied between studies, making comparisons difficult. Only 3 of the e-cigarettes used in the studies are currently available in the United States. Study sizes ranged from 150 to 1124 participants. Young people, so that no more than 15% at the age of 20 became regular cigarette smokers. (reference level: 30% in 1987) 3.7 Increase smoking cessation during pregnancy so that at least In addition, the following resources may be useful to primary care physicians and practices attempting to implement smoking cessation interventions.
By experimenting with tobacco, young people put themselves at risk of nicotine addiction. People who start smoking early have a harder time quitting, are more likely to become heavy smokers and are more likely to develop a smoking-related disease (1, 27). Between 1975 and 1985, about 75% of people who smoked daily during high school were daily smokers 7 to 9 years later; However, only 5% of these people, as high school students, predicted that they would “definitely” smoke 5 years later (23). Smoking is addictive; Three in four teens who smoke have made at least one serious but unsuccessful attempt to quit smoking (28). The Surgeon General`s 1994 report on smoking and health concluded that people are more likely to become addicted to nicotine after exposure than to other addictive substances (e.g., heroin, cocaine or alcohol). In addition, nicotine addiction in youth follows essentially the same process as in adults, resulting in withdrawal symptoms and unsuccessful exit attempts (8). Therefore, smoking cessation programs are needed to help youth who are already using tobacco (4). 60% of women who smoke cigarettes at the time of pregnancy quit smoking early in pregnancy and maintain abstinence for the remainder of their pregnancy. (baseline: 39% in 1985) 3.8 Reduce the proportion of children aged 6 years to a maximum of 20% Hatziandreu EJ, Pierce JP, Lefkopoulou M, et al.
He quit smoking in the United States in 1986. J of Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82;1402-6. Most of the evidence for the effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention comes from studies conducted in schools where programs focused exclusively on smoking. Other evidence suggests that tobacco prevention can also be effective when properly integrated into broader drug and alcohol prevention programmes (57) or into comprehensive school-based health education programmes (31). The effectiveness of schools` efforts to prevent smoking appears to be enhanced by the addition of targeted community-based programs that address the role of families, community-based organizations, tobacco policy, tobacco advertising, and other elements of the youth social environment (8).