Discuss the analog situation with the insulating balls. Indicate how the spheres remain neutral even if they are polarized in panels (b) and (c). Polarization can be used to load objects. Consider the two metal spheres shown in Figure 18.11. The balls are electrically neutral, so they carry the same amounts of positive and negative charge. In the top image (Figure 18.11(a)), the two spheres touch each other and the positive and negative charges are evenly distributed over the two spheres. We then approach a glass rod that carries an excessive positive charge, which can be done by rubbing the glass rod with silk, as shown in Figure 18.11 (b). Since the opposite charges attract each other, the negative charge is attracted to the glass rod, leaving an excess positive charge on the opposite side of the right sphere. This is an example of induction loading, where a load is created by approaching an object loaded with a second object to create an unbalanced load in the second object. Then, when we separate the two spheres, as shown in Figure 18.11(c), the excess load remains blocked on each sphere. The left ball now has an excessive negative charge and the right ball has an excessive positive charge. Finally, in the lower image, the rod is removed and the opposite charges attract each other so that they get as close as possible. According to Coulomb, the electrical force for stationary charges has the following properties: [AL]Ask what other conservation laws they have encountered in physics, and discuss how these laws are applied.
Point out that static construction does not stay on an object forever. Ask students how a static charge can escape from an object. Point out that this static buildup dissolves faster on wet days than on dry days. What happens if an excessive negative charge is placed on a conductive object? Because just as the protected repel each other, they will fight against each other until they are as far away as possible. Because the load can move in a conductor, it moves to the outer surfaces of the object. Figure 18.9(a) shows schematically how an excess negative charge is evenly distributed over the outer surface of a metal sphere. The electric charge is a scalar quantity. In addition to having a size and direction, a quantity called vector must also obey the laws of vector addition, such as the triangular law of vector addition and the parallelogram law of vector addition; Only then is the set called vector size. When two currents meet at an intersection, in the case of an electric current, the current resulting from these currents is an algebraic sum and not the vector sum. Therefore, an electric current is a scalar quantity, although it has a size and direction. When a person receives a positive or negative charge, it can cause the person`s hair to rise because the loads in each hair keep it away from the others.
Coulomb`s law is given by the expression: where Fe is the electric force, q1 and q2 are electric charges, k is Coulomb`s constant 8.988×109 N⋅m2/C2, and r is the separation distance. The amplitude of the electrostatic force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charge quantities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It took a long time for scientists to understand what was behind these two types of charges. The word electric itself comes from the Greek word elektron for amber, because the ancient Greeks noticed that amber, when rubbed by fur, attracts dry straw. Nearly 2,000 years later, the English physicist William Gilbert proposed a model that explained the effect of electric charge as being due to a mysterious electric liquid that would move from one object to another. This model was discussed for several hundred years, but it was finally buried in 1897 by the work of the English physicist J. J. Thomson and the French physicist Jean Perrin.
Along with many others, Thomson and Perrin studied the mysterious cathode rays, which were known at the time to be made up of particles smaller than the smallest atom. Perrin showed that cathode rays actually carried a negative electrical charge. Later, Thomson`s work led him to explain: “I cannot escape the conclusion that [cathode rays] are charges of negative electricity carried by particles of matter.” The electrical charge felt when you receive a shock from a door handle or other object is usually between 25,000 and 30,000 volts. However, the electric current flows only briefly, so the flow of electrons through the person`s body does not cause physical damage. On the other hand, when clouds gain electrical charges, they have even higher voltages and the current (the number of electrons that will flow in case of lightning) can be very high. This means that electrons can jump from a cloud to Earth (or from Earth to a cloud). When these electrons pass through a person, the electric shock can burn or kill. Electric charge is a fundamental property of electrons, protons and other subatomic particles. Electrons are negatively charged, while protons are positively charged.
Things that are negatively charged and things that are positively charged attract each other (attract each other). As a result, electrons and protons stay together to form atoms. Things that have the same charge repel each other (they repel each other). This is called the impeachment law. It was discovered by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. The law that describes how many charges pull and push each other is called Coulomb`s law.  Describe the force between two interacting positive point charges. If there were an identical number of positive and negative charges, the negative and positive charges would cancel each other out and the object would become neutral.
“Electric charge is the property of subatomic particles that causes them to undergo force when placed in an electric and magnetic field.” Electric charges are of two types: positive and negative, which are usually carried by proton and electron charge carriers. Examples of charge types are subatomic particles or particles of matter: protons are positively charged. Electrons are negatively charged. Neutrons have no costs. What are the two main electrical classifications of materials based on the ease with which charges can pass through them? In an isolated system, the electrical charge is preserved, which means that the net electrical charge of the system is constant. The algebraic sum of the fundamental charges in each isolated system remains the same. Van de Graaff generators use smooth, sharp surfaces, conductors and insulators to create large static loads. In the version shown in Figure 18.12, electrons are “sprayed” from the ends of the lower comb onto a movable strip made of an insulating material such as rubber. This belt loading technique is similar to charging your shoes with electrons while walking on a mat. The belt lifts the loads to the top ridge, where they are transferred again, in the same way that you touch the door handle and transfer your load to it. Because when the charges repel each other, the excess electrons all flow to the outer surface of the globe, which is made of metal (a conductor).
Thus, the comb itself never accumulates too much load, because any load it gains is quickly exhausted as the load moves to the outer surface of the globe. Point out that the total load is the same at every moment. Discuss how the movement of electrons to the right is synonymous with the movement of the same size of positive charge to the left, but clarify that in most situations, only negative charges actually move in solids. How do we know that there are two types of electric charge? When different materials are rubbed together in a controlled manner, some material combinations always result in a net charge of one type on one material and a net charge of the opposite type on the other material. According to the Convention, we call one type of cargo positive and the other type negative. For example, when glass is rubbed with silk, the glass is positively charged and the silk is negatively charged. Because glass and silk have opposite charges, they dress like clothes rubbed together in a dryer. Two glass rods rubbed with silk repel each other in this way, because each stem has a positive charge. Similarly, two silk scarves rubbed in this way will repel each other, since both fabrics have a negative charge. Figure 18.2 shows how these simple materials can be used to explore the nature of the force between charges.
We may already know that similar fees push each other away and attract each other as opposed to fees. But did you take a minute to ask yourself how strong these forces are? Coulomb`s law provides a way to calculate the force of the force between two points. Electric charge is the basic physical property of matter that causes it to undergo a force when held in an electric or magnetic field. An electric charge is associated with an electric field, and the moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. A combination of electric and magnetic fields is called an electromagnetic field. The interaction of charges creates an electromagnetic force, which is the basis of physics. In this session, tell us about electric charges, types of electric charges, and the properties of electric charges. [BL] [EL] Discuss what is meant by conservation in the physical sense of the word.